Do you know RESNA, Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America? RESNA members promote the exchange of ideas and information for the advancement of assistive technology.
RESNA develops standards for assistive devices in the following areas: wheelchairs (including scooters), wheelchairs and transportation, wheelchair seating, support surfaces, vision and hearing impairments, adaptive sports equipment. A long list of standards covering these technologies is on the RESNA website. Here we have the standards with accompanying descriptions and links to download them.
ISO 7176-1:2014 Wheelchairs – Part 1: Determination of static stability
ISO 7176-1:2014 specifies test methods for determining the static stability of wheelchairs. It is applicable to manual and electrically powered wheelchairs, including scooters, with a maximum speed not greater than 15 km/h, intended to provide indoor and/or outdoor mobility for one disabled person whose mass is within the range represented by ISO 7176-11:2012 – Wheelchairs – Part 11: Test Dummies. For active stability-controlled wheelchairs, ISO 7176-1:2014 applies to the device in a stable, parked state. ISO 7176-1:2014 provides a method for the measurement of the tipping angles (either wheelchair tipping angle or anti-tip device tipping angle), but this method is not applicable to wheelchairs with lateral anti-tip devices and does not consider sliding on the ground. ISO 7176-1:2014 also includes requirements for test reports and information disclosure.
ISO 7176-2:2017 Wheelchairs – Part 2: Determination of dynamic stability of electric wheelchairs
This part of ISO 7176 specifies test methods for determining the dynamic stability of electrically powered wheelchairs. This part of ISO 7176 is applicable to electrically powered wheelchairs including scooters with a maximum nominal speed not exceeding 15 km/h, intended to carry one person.
ISO 7176-3:2012 Wheelchairs – Part 3: Determination of effectiveness of brakes
ISO 7176-3:2012 specifies test methods for the measurement of the effectiveness of brakes of manual wheelchairs and electrically powered wheelchairs, including scooters, intended to carry one person, with a maximum speed not exceeding 15 km/h. It also specifies disclosure requirements for the manufacturer.
ISO 7176-4:2008 Wheelchairs – Part 4: Energy consumption of electric wheelchairs and scooters for determination of theoretical distance range
ISO 7176-4:2008 specifies methods for determining theoretical distance range of electrically powered wheelchairs, including scooters, using measurements of energy consumed while driving and the nominal energy capacity of the wheelchair’s battery set. It is applicable to electrically powered wheelchairs with a maximum nominal speed no greater than 15 km/h, intended to provide indoor and/or outdoor mobility for one disabled person whose mass is within the range represented by ISO 7176-11. ISO 7176-4:2008 also includes requirements for test reports and information disclosure.
ISO 7176-5:2008 Wheelchairs – Part 5: Determination of dimensions, mass and manoeuvering space
ISO 7176-5:2008 is applicable to manual wheelchairs and electrically powered wheelchairs (including scooters). It specifies methods for the determination of wheelchair dimensions and mass. This includes specific methods for the determination of outside dimensions when the wheelchair is occupied by a reference occupant and the required manoeuvring space needed for wheelchair manoeuvres commonly carried out in daily life. ISO 7176-5:2008 specifies requirements for the disclosure of the dimensions and masses and contains five informative annexes.
- Annex A specifies methods for the determination of technical dimensions that can be important to the performance of the wheelchair.
- Annex B provides detailed information about pivot width and reversing width.
- Annex C provides detailed information about the turning diameter.
- Annex D provides details on determining the wheelchair longitudinal axis and wheelchair centre-point.
- Annex E provides technical guidelines and interpretation for many of the measurements specified to facilitate improved understanding, design and construction of wheelchairs
ISO 7176-6:2018 Wheelchairs – Part 6: Determination of maximum speed, acceleration and deceleration of electric wheelchairs
This part of ISO 7176 specifies test methods for determining the maximum speed, acceleration and deceleration of electrically powered wheelchairs, including scooters, intended to carry one person, with a maximum nominal speed not exceeding 15 km/h (4,167 m/s).
ISO 7176-7:1998 Wheelchairs – Part 7: Measurement of seating and wheel dimensions
This part of ISO 7176 specifies a method for measuring the seating and wheel dimensions of wheelchairs.
It is applicable to wheelchairs and vehicles intended to provide indoor and outdoor mobility at speed up to 15 km/h for people with disabilities whose mass does not exceed 120 kg, including the following classifications from ISO 9999:2022:
- Electric motor-driven wheelchairs with manual steering 12 21 24
- Electric motor-driven wheelchairs with power steering 12 21 27
- Powered attendant-controlled wheelchairs 12 21 21
- Manual attendant-controlled wheelchairs 12 21 03
- Bimanual rear-wheel-driven wheelchairs 12 21 06
- Bimanual front-wheel-driven wheelchairs 12 21 09
- Bimanual lever-driven wheelchairs 12 21 12
- Single-side-driven nonpowered wheelchairs driven by one arm or one leg 12 21 15
- Foot-propelled wheelchairs 12 21 18
It does not apply to wheelchairs with a seat width of less than 212 mm.
This part of ISO 7176 does not specify nominal seating and wheel dimensions for wheelchairs.
ISO 7176-8:2014 Wheelchairs – Part 8: Requirements and test methods for static, impact and fatigue strengths
ISO 7176-9:2009 Wheelchairs – Part 9: Climatic tests for electric wheelchairs
ISO 7176-9:2009 specifies requirements and test methods to determine the effects of rain, dust, condensation and the effects of changes of temperature on the basic functioning of electrically powered wheelchairs, including scooters, intended to carry one person, with a maximum speed not exceeding 15 km/h. ISO 7176-9:2009 does not include requirements for resistance to corrosion.
ISO 7176-10:2008 Wheelchairs – Part 10: Determination of obstacle-climbing ability of electrically powered wheelchairs
ISO 7176-10:2008 specifies test methods for determining the ability to climb and descend obstacles of electrically powered wheelchairs, including scooters, intended to carry one person, with a maximum nominal speed not exceeding 15 km/h.
ISO 7176-11:2012 Wheelchairs – Part 11: Test dummies
ISO 7176-11:2012 specifies requirements for test dummies of any mass greater than or equal to 25 kg, to be used in the evaluation of wheelchairs. ISO 7176-11:2012 provides formulae that specify the location of the overall centre of mass of test dummies, the masses of the segments that comprise the test dummies and the locations of pivots that connect the segments. It also specifies the characteristics of loading pads that support the segments. ISO 7176-11:2012 is intended to enable the construction of test dummies that will produce comparable results for stability, performance and durability testing of manual wheelchairs and electrically powered wheelchairs, including scooters. ISO 7176-11:2012 also includes informative tables of mass and locations of centre of mass, which are derived from the formulae, corresponding to example test dummy masses up to 300 kg in 25 kg increments.
ISO 7176-13:1989 Wheelchairs — Part 13: Determination of coefficient of friction of test surfaces
The test method consists in drawing a given block with definite speed over the test surface of in general rough structure. The bottom side of the block is covered with a layer of standard rubber to get comparable results.
ISO 7176-14:2022 Wheelchairs – Part 14: Power and control systems for electrically powered wheelchairs and scooters – Requirements and test methods
ISO 7176-14:2022 specifies requirements and associated test methods for the power and control systems of electrically powered wheelchairs and scooters. It sets safety and performance requirements that apply during normal use and some conditions of abuse and failure. It also specifies methods of measurement of the forces necessary to operate controls and sets limits on the forces needed for some operations. ISO 7176-14:2022 is applicable to electrically powered wheelchairs and scooters with a maximum speed no greater than 15 km/h intended to provide indoor and/or outdoor mobility for one disabled person whose mass lies in the range specified in ISO 7176-11.
ISO 7176-15:1996 Wheelchairs – Part 15: Requirements for information disclosure, documentation and labelling
Specifies the information, documentation and labelling to be provided with a wheelchair at the supply by the manufacturer.
ISO 7176-16:2013 Wheelchairs – Part 16: Resistance to ignition of postural support devices
ISO 7176-16:2013 specifies requirements and test methods to assess the resistance to ignition by match flame equivalent of all postural support devices that are supplied to be part of a wheelchair or its seating system. ISO 7176-16:2013 only determines the resistance to ignition of the devices tested and not the ignitability of the complete wheelchair. The standard allows for the separate testing of inferior/superior supports (e.g. arm supports), which are usually used in the horizontal plane, and anterior/posterior/lateral/medial supports (e.g. thoracic harnesses, calf panels), which are usually used in the vertical plane.
ISO 7176-19:2022 Wheelchairs – Part 19: Wheeled mobility devices for use as seats in motor vehicles
ISO 7176-19:2022 applies to all manual and powered wheelchairs, including scooters, which, in addition to their primary function as wheeled mobility devices, are also likely to be used as forward-facing seats in motor vehicles by children and adults with a body mass equal to or greater than 22 kg. ISO 7176-19:2022 specifies wheelchair design requirements, performance requirements and associated test methods, and requirements for wheelchair labelling, presale literature, user instructions and user warnings. It applies to complete wheelchairs, including a base frame and seating system, as well as to wheelchairs equipped with add-on adaptive components designed to facilitate compliance with one or more of the requirements.
ISO 7176-21:2009 Wheelchairs – Part 21: Requirements and test methods for electromagnetic compatibility of electrically powered wheelchairs and scooters, and battery chargers
ISO 7176-21:2009 specifies requirements and test methods for electromagnetic emissions and for electromagnetic immunity of electrically powered wheelchairs and scooters with a maximum speed of not more than 15 km/h intended for indoor and/or outdoor use by people with disabilities. It is also applicable to manual wheelchairs with an add-on power kit. It is not applicable to vehicles designed to carry more than one person. ISO 7176-21:2009 also specifies requirements and test methods for the electromagnetic compatibility of battery chargers intended for use with electrically powered wheelchairs and scooters.
ISO 7176-22:2014 Wheelchairs – Part 22: Set-up procedures
ISO 7176-22:2014 specifies a set-up procedure to be used as a part of the preparation of adjustable wheelchairs for testing. This procedure takes the manufacturer’s instructions into account. ISO 7176-22:2014 is applicable to manual wheelchairs and electric wheelchairs (including scooters) intended to provide indoor and/or outdoor mobility.
ISO 7176-25:2022 Wheelchairs – Part 25: Batteries and chargers for powered wheelchairs
ISO 7176-25:2013 specifies requirements and test methods for batteries and battery chargers intended for use with electrically powered wheelchairs. It is applicable to lead acid batteries and chargers intended for use with them. Requirements for chargers are applicable to those with a rated input voltage not greater than 250 V a.c. and a nominal output voltage not greater than 36 V.
ISO 7176-26:2007 Wheelchairs – Part 26: Vocabulary
ISO 7176-26:2007 specifies a vocabulary consisting of terms and definitions used in the field of manual and electrically powered wheelchairs (including scooters) and associated seating systems. ISO 7176-26:2007 includes, but is not limited to, the preferred terms used in two or more ISO standards of the ISO 7176, ISO 10542 and ISO 16840 series, but does not include terms considered to be adequately defined in everyday English.
ISO 7176-28:2012 Wheelchairs – Part 28: Requirements and test methods for stair-climbing devices
ISO 7176-28:2012 is applicable to stair-climbing chairs and stair-climbing wheelchair carriers where the stair-climbing device climbs backwards up the stairs, with the occupant facing downstairs, and climbs forwards down the stairs with the occupant also facing downstairs. It is applicable to stair-climbing devices which are intended for the transport of adults and those intended for the transport of children. It is not applicable to stair-climbing devices which are intended to be operated by children as operating occupants or assistants. This standard specifies requirements and test methods for electrically powered stair-climbing devices. It is not applicable to manually powered stair-climbing devices.
ISO 7176-28:2012 specifies tests to demonstrate the stair-climbing device’s ability to perform safely on stairs with a pitch of 35°, or higher if declared by the manufacturer. It also includes ergonomic, labelling and disclosure requirements.
ISO 16840-1:2006 Wheelchair seating – Part 1: Vocabulary, reference axis convention and measures for body segments, posture and postural support surfaces
ISO 16840-1:2006 applies to seating intended to provide postural support within a wheelchair. It specifies:
- a global coordinate system that permits the determination and recording of a person’s posture while seated in a wheelchair;
- the standard terms and definitions for use in describing both the posture and the anthropometrics of a person seated in a wheelchair;
- the terms and definitions for describing the dimensions, location and orientation of seating support surfaces, which together comprise the body support system.
ISO 16840-1:2006 does not specify any methods for use in measuring a person’s seated posture, nor does it define terms for dynamic physiological movements (such as flexion or extension). This standard might be applicable to seating other than that intended to be used within a wheelchair.
ISO 16840-2:2018 Wheelchair seating – Part 2: Determination of physical and mechanical characteristics of devices intended to manage tissue integrity – Seat cushions
ISO 16840-2:2018 specifies apparatus, test methods and disclosure requirements for wheelchair seat cushions intended to maintain tissue integrity and prevent tissue trauma. It does not include test methods or requirements for determining the fire resistance of cushions and addresses neither the interface pressure distributing characteristics of seat cushions nor the heat and water vapour dissipation characteristics of seat cushions. ISO 16840-2:2018 can also be applicable to tissue integrity management devices used as other support systems, as well as to cushions used in situations other than a wheelchair.
ISO 16840-3:2014 Wheelchair seating – Part 3: Determination of static, impact and repetitive load strengths for postural support devices
ISO 16840-3:2014 specifies test methods for the determination of static, impact, and repetitive load strengths as well as disclosure requirements for postural support devices (PSD) with associated attachment hardware intended for use with an undefined wheelchair.
ISO 16840-4:2009 Wheelchair seating – Part 4: Seating systems for use in motor vehicles
ISO 16840-4:2009 specifies test methods and requirements for design and performance, for instructions and warnings and for product marking and labelling of seating systems intended to be used as a forward-facing seat in a motor vehicle when fitted to a manual or powered wheelchair. It evaluates the frontal crashworthiness performance of complete seating systems for occupancy by adults or children of mass equal to or greater than 22 kg. ISO 16840-4:2009 only applies to complete wheelchair seating systems including attachment hardware, designed to be used with a wheelchair base tested as part of a wheelchair system that conforms to ISO 7176-19 performance requirements and that has securement points for use with four-point, strap-type tiedowns. The standard applies to seating systems designed to be used with occupant restraints that anchor either to the vehicle, the tiedown system, the seating system or the wheelchair base.
ISO 16840-6:2015 Wheelchair seating – Part 6: Simulated use and determination of the changes in properties of seat cushions
ISO 16840-9:2015 specifies apparatus, test methods, and disclosure requirements for generating aging effects in a seat cushion that reproduce those seen in use. It also provides methods of determining changes in the physical and mechanical properties of seat cushions based on their age and use. This part of ISO 16840 provides a set of tests that simulate wear and tear, which can be useful to validate warranty claims and to provide information about product, life, and performance limitations associated with product use.
ISO/TR 16840-9:2015 Wheelchair seating – Part 9: Clinical interface pressure mapping guidelines for seating
ISO 16840-10:2021 Wheelchairs – Resistance to ignition of non-integrated seat and back support cushions – Part 10: Requirements and test methods
ISO 16840-10:2014 specifies requirements and test methods to assess the resistance to ignition by smouldering cigarette equivalent of non-integrated components of a wheelchair intended to protect tissue integrity. The test measures only the resistance to ignition by smouldering cigarette equivalent of the items tested and not the ignitability of the complete wheelchair. It gives an indication, but cannot guarantee, the ignition behaviour of the assembled non-integrated devices of a complete wheelchair.
This part of ISO 16840 does not apply to resistance to ignition of structural parts of a wheelchair, nor does it cover postural support devices. This part of ISO 16840 does not cover changes in resistance to ignition as a result of regular washing or use.
This part of ISO 16840 allows for the separate testing of removable non-integrated components of a wheelchair which are normally used in the horizontal plane (e.g. a seat cushion) from those normally used in the vertical plane (e.g. a back support). Additionally, this part of ISO 16840 describes testing an assembly of the composite of materials as used in the removable non-integrated component. The results of this part of ISO 16840 do not give any indication of the resistance to ignition of any of the separate individual materials of the test sample.
- NOTE 1 The intent of this part of ISO 16840 is primarily to cover removable cushions whose described purpose is that of protecting skin tissue against pressure, shear, and maceration related damage.
- NOTE 2 The requirements of this part of ISO 16840 have been set at a basic minimal level and are less severe than mandatory requirements in some countries.
Where practical, it is advisable that manufacturers use materials with superior resistance to ignition. The manufacturer is required to make the case as to why ISO 7176-16 could not be employed rather than this part of ISO 16840.
- NOTE 3 Requirements for the control of risks from sources of fire created by electrical and electronic components are included in ISO 7176-14.
ISO/TS 16840-11:2014 Wheelchair seating – Part 11: Determination of perspiration dissipation characteristics of seat cushions intended to manage tissue integrity
ISO/TS 16840-11:2014 specifies a method for determining the dissipation characteristics of simulated perspiration exposure on wheelchair seat cushions. It is applicable to wheelchair seat cushions that include a cushion cover.
ISO/TS 16840-12:2015 Wheelchair seating – Part 12: Apparatus and method for cushion envelopment testing
ISO/TS 16840-12:2015 specifies apparatus, test methods, and disclosure requirements for characterization of wheelchair seat cushion immersion and envelopment properties using instrumented indenters to characterize the interface pressure of each indenter and the test cushion by measuring the cushioning effects of immersion and envelopment. This part of ISO 16840 can be considered to expand the characterization of products intended to manage tissue integrity (ISO 16840-2) and provide a standardized indenter for other wheelchair seating tests. It does not provide information specific to cushion performance for a particular individual user. ISO/TS 16840-12:2015 includes a method that is specific to 220 mm and 255 mm indenters. Dimensions and loads are provided for the 380 mm indenter to allow for extension of the methods for bariatric applications.
ISO 10542-1:2012 Technical systems and aids for disabled or handicapped persons – Wheelchair tiedown and occupant-restraint systems – Part 1: Requirements and test methods for all systems
ISO 10542-1:2012/Cor1:2013 Corrigendum
ISO 23600:2007 Assistive products for persons with vision impairments and persons with vision and hearing impairments – Acoustic and tactile signals for pedestrian traffic lights
ISO 23600:2007 specifies requirements for acoustic and tactile signals for pedestrian traffic lights to assist in safe and independent mobility of persons with vision impairments and persons with vision and hearing impairments. It is applicable to design, installation and operation of acoustic and tactile signals for pedestrian traffic lights.
Walking Aids and Assistive Products
Thanks for the information on ISO7176,
I am trying to make some sense of the series of wheelchairs supplied for my grandson at great expense.
Most of them not to standard in many respects and the current one not safe to use nor fit for purpose.
It is too heavy and injuring his mother and father as well as injuring my grandson.
My son wheelchair was fitted with a robotic arm which is securely mounted on the power wheelchair, however the controls devices we just put into a bag and cable ties were just used to secured the bag on the back rest. The controls is supposed to be permannently attached to the wheelchair.
The current cable ties mount look substandard and easily broken , and possible endager the safety of the user and people around it. Does anybody know what is the right standard to be apply for mounting permanent controls to a power wheelchair , so I can notify the vendor what they are doing in in correct.
Hello, you might want to contact either RESNA (https://www.resna.org/About/Contact-Us) or the technical committee ISO/TC 173/SC 1 (https://www.iso.org/committee/53792.html) for this information.