Metaverse Technology: Augmented Reality Standards

Virtual augmented reality mobile iphone app featuring furniture in a home.

Both technology (projections) and humans (consumers) agree augmented reality (AR) has the potential to grow tremendously in the future. Here are some statistics:

Due to the exciting, impending, and growing future of AR in everyday life, it is crucial that AR adheres to specifications laid out in augmented reality standards published by standard developing organizations like IEEE, ISO, and IEC.

What Is Augmented Reality?

Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience that combines the real world and computer-generated content. It is the real-time use of information in the form of text, graphics, audio, and other virtual enhancements integrated with real-world objects. Unlike virtual reality that integrates a simulation, AR incorporates a “real world” element with the user’s interaction.

How Is Augmented Reality Used in Real Life?

Augmented reality (AR) has been included in online games, mobile apps allowing users to try out types of makeup, and store catalog apps. These apps enable customers to visualize what different cartoons/characters or products would look like in various real-life environments. When buying furniture, shoppers can point their camera to the appropriate room and the product like tables and shelves will appear in the foreground.

Augmented reality being used by a consumer to pick out clothes on a digital interface.

Augmented Reality Standard Developing Organizations (SDOs)

Augmented reality standards are published by ISO, IEC, IEEE, SAE, BS, and DS, covering topics such as:

  • Benchmarking of vision-based spatial registration and tracking methods
  • Catalog model for content
  • Computer graphics
  • Entity representation
  • Eyeglass displays
  • Human factor guidelines
  • Human-system interaction, terminology
  • Immersive visual content coding
  • Information technology for education
  • Mixed and augmented reality
  • Multimedia application format (MPEG-A)
  • Requirements for manager of information for users
  • Tactile and haptic interactions

What Are Some Augmented Reality Standards?

  1. ISO/IEC 18038:2020 defines the framework and information reference model for representing sensor-based 3D mixed-reality worlds.
  2. ISO/IEC 23000-13:2017 [INCITS/ISO/IEC 23000-13:2017 (2021)] specifies mechanisms to connect to local/remote sensors and actuators and remote resources, such as maps and compressed media. It also details description elements for representing AR content and mechanisms to integrated compressed media (image, audio, video, graphics).
  3. ISO/IEC TR 23843:2020 describes how to search for virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR) content through a curriculum catalogue based on curriculum and achievement standards information.
  4. ISO/TS 9241-430:2021 provides guidance on the design, selection, and optimization of non-contacting hand and arm gestures for human-computer interaction. It addresses the assessment of usability and fatigue associated with different gesture set designs and provides recommendations for approaches to evaluating the design and selection of gestures. This document also provides guidance on the documentation of the process for selecting gesture sets expressed by humans. Non-contacting hand gestures can be used for input in a variety of settings, including the workplace or in public settings and when using fixed screens, mobile, virtual reality, augmented reality or mixed-mode reality devices.
  5. IEEE 1589-2020 proposes an overarching integrated conceptual model that describes interactions between the physical world, the user, and digital information, the context for AR-assisted learning and other parameters of the environment. Specifically, it defines two data models and their binding to XML and JSON.
  6. ISO/IEC 18039:2019 defines the scope and key concepts of mixed and augmented reality, the relevant terms and definition, and a generalized system architecture—all of which together serve as a reference model for mixed and augmented reality (MAR) applications, components, systems, services, and specifications.
  7. ISO/IEC 18040:2019 defines a reference model and base components for representing and controlling a single LAE or multiple LAEs in an MAR scene. It defines concepts, a reference model, system framework, functions, and how to integrate a 2D/3D virtual world and LAEs, and their interfaces.
  8. ISO/IEC 18520:2019 identifies the reference framework for the benchmarking of vision-based spatial registration and tracking (vSRT) methods for mixed and augmented reality (MAR).
  9. ISO/IEC 23488:2022 specifies an image-based representation model that represents target objects/environments using a set of images and optionally the underlying 3D model for accurate and efficient objects/environments representation at an arbitrary viewpoint. 
  10. ISO/IEC TS 23884:2021 specifies physical and material parameters of virtual or real objects expressed to support comprehensive haptic rendering methods, such as stiffness, friction and micro-textures. It supplements other standards that describe scene or content description and information models for virtual and mixed reality, such as ISO/IEC 19775 and ISO/IEC 3721-1.

What Is the Future of Augmented Reality?

As technology becomes more accessible to consumers in the expanding and advancing metaverse (i.e., a virtual reality space), the augmented reality (AR) market will continue to grow in years to come in everyday businesses and in its capabilities. AR is the next step for many businesses—such as medicine, retail, construction, space, and engineering—to grow. For example, in a study, AR was used in surgery to help place metal screws to a precision of less than 2 mm with an accuracy of 98% on standard performance metrics. Major corporations are looking to replace the smartphone with AR, as AR capabilities include features like X-ray vision, navigational cues, and dexterity support.

Augmented reality technology concept being used in engineering.
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