MSS SP-99-2023: Instrument Valves

Old red needle valve in oil refinery, otherwise known as an MSS SP-99-2023 instrument valve.

Whether employing the use of a needle-shaped plunger, a pivoting ball, or a rotating cylindrically tapered plug, instrument valves are abundant in industry to control the flow of fluids in common instruments. As such, the application of MSS SP-99-2023: Instrument Valves is vast.

What Is MSS SP-99-2023?

MSS SP-99-2023: Instrument Valves applies to small valves and manifold valves developed for and predominantly used in instrument, control, and sampling piping systems. This standard covers steel and alloy valves of nominal pipe size (NPS) 2 and smaller, with pressure ratings of 15,000 psi and lower at 100 °F.

What Are Instrument Valves?

An instrument valve isn’t a specific design of valve but a type type that can be used for a broad array of applications. Process measurement and control makes use of numerous gauges and instruments that may be connected to a piping system. Providing controlled isolation and connection of these instruments is the function of instrument valves, which can come in various designs. In fact, the MSS SP-99-2023: Instrument Valves standard can be used to specify needle valves, packless valves, ball valves, plug valves, check valves, and manifold valves. The standard prepares the different valve designs for use as instrument valves by detailing their design requirements, which are to be assessed through testing methods.

Which Tests Are Covered in MSS SP-99-2023?

The first primary group of tests featured in MSS SP-99-2023: Instrument Valves is that of qualification tests. These exist to qualify the valve designs through two specific tests: hydrostatic proof and burst tests. The proof test calls for each test valve to pass hydrostatic shell proof test with minimum requirements for fluid (such as water or hydraulic oil), temperature (within the range of 50 °F to 125 °F), pressure, time, and position.

The second qualification test, the burst test procedure, hydrostatically shell tests the test valve to failure by rupture. At the end of this test, the user should record the hydrostatic pressure at which rupture occurs. The valve should be the same as the one used for the proof tests.

These qualification tests allow for a determination of the pressure rating, in which the CWP rating shall be less than or equal to the pressure determined from the burst pressure as follows:

 0.25 B Tm/Ta

Where P = CWP Rating, B = the lowest burst test pressure recorded for three specimens tested, Ta = actual tensile strength of the test specimen, and Tm = specified minimum tensile strength of the material.

The second group of tests comprises acceptance testing, which calls for each production valve to pass a seat leakage test and a shell test. The standard test methods are to be conducted with a liquid or gas and should meet minimum requirements specific to the state of matter used for the process. The characteristics covered are identical to those of the qualification tests (fluid, temperature, pressure, time, and position).

As the result of these tests, users of MSS SP-99-2023: Instrument Valves can determine essential qualities of the test valve, all of which should be visibly marked by the manufacturer. This should include, at least: manufacturer’s identification, flow direction, manufacturer’s model number, and material grade.

MSS SP-99-2023: Instrument Valves was written and published by the Manufacturer’s Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry (MSS), an ANSI-accredited standards-developing organization. Any guideline for valve specification and marking not addressed by this standard can be found in other MSS standards.

MSS SP-99-2023: Instrument Valves is available on the ANSI Webstore.

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