The legend goes that in 800 AD, Kaldi, an Ethiopian goat herder, discovered coffee after noticing his goats become very energetic after eating berries from a certain tree. Kaldi reported his finding to the abbot of the local monastery, who made a drink with the berries and found out that it kept him alert through the long hours of evening prayers. Thus, the knowledge of the energizing berries began to spread across the globe and is now one of the world’s most traded food commodities. ISO 23134:2022—Coffee And Coffee Products – Determination Of Particle Size Of Ground Roasted Coffee – Horizontal Sieving Motion Method Using Circular Brushes details a testing method for coffee.
Is Coffee Good or Bad for Your Health?
While past studies hinted that coffee intake may be harmful, newer research suggests that moderate coffee consumption (two to five cups a day) may actually have health benefits. The FDA has cited that for health adults consuming 400 milligrams a day (about four or five cups of coffee) is not generally associated with dangerous, negative effects. Further, research has found that moderate coffee intake is linked to a lower likelihood of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, liver and endometrial cancers, Parkinson’s disease, and depression; it is even possible that people who drink coffee can reduce their risk of early death.
It is important to note, however, that coffee still has risks due to its high caffeine content, and there is wide variation in how sensitive people are to the effects of caffeine and how fast they metabolize it. Coffee consumption can temporarily raise blood sugar. It could also worsen anxiety symptoms for those with panic or anxiety disorder. High intake of boiled, unfiltered coffee has been associated with mild increase in cholesterol levels and associated with higher rates of early death.
According to the Mayo Clinic, the bottom line is that “your coffee habit is probably fine and may even have some benefits, but if you have side effects from coffee, such as heartburn, nervousness or insomnia, consider cutting back.”
What Is ISO 23134?
ISO 23134:2022 specifies a method for carrying out particle-size distribution analysis of roasted ground coffee by horizontal sieving motion method using circular brushes to minimize the effects of obstruction, agglomeration, and adhesion. A horizontal sieving machine is a sieving method that separates and measures the particle according to their mesh size by using solely horizontal mechanical movements. During horizontal sieving, the sieves move in a circular motion in a single flat plane.
The standard details that sieves should be used in accordance with ISO 565 and ISO 3310-1; test sieving should be carried out with a single test sieve or with a series of test sieves with different nominal aperture sizes. The sample taken for sieving should be representative of sample material from which is has been drawn. ISO 23134:2022 provides general principles to follow concerning apparatus, procedure, and presentation of results and is applicable to particle sizes ranging from approximately 150 m to 2 mm.
What Are the Four Types of Coffee?
Coffee varies radically in taste. Here are the four main types are coffee:
Arabica coffee makes up 60% of the world’s coffee, and coffee experts consider it the highest quality coffee variety. Arabica beans are the most common and most heavily marketed type of coffee in North America. They produce coffee with a sweeter, more delicate flavor and the coffee itself is less acidic. Arabica beans are farmed in areas with high elevations above sea leave, especially in areas where rain is plentiful (Brazil is the world’s foremost exporter of Arabica beans).
Robusta coffee is most popular in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. It is much easier to grow and harvest than Arabica because it is not very susceptible to pests’ damage, produces more finished products per acre, and requires relatively low production costs. These beans have extremely high levels of caffeine and are often used to make instant coffee or espresso blends. The bean may taste burnt or rubbery, so it is not a very popular coffee commodity except where very strong is a cultural norm.
Near the end of the 19th century, a plant disease (coffee rust) had eliminated nearly all the Arabica plants worldwide. Because coffee was such a huge commodity, farmers and government bodies set out to find suitable substitutes. The Philippines was the first to harvest and sell the Liberica plant at a noteworthy volume. At this point, the Philippines was a U.S. territory, but as its economy grew the Philippines declared its independence. As a result, the U.S. imposed steep economic sanctions and cut off supplies to the country, leading to the downfall of the Liberica coffee bean in the global marketplace as Liberica coffee beans are grown in very specific climates. Production of the bean—which has a woody taste and a fruity, floral aroma—has been too scarce for farmers to scale their operations to satisfy a global marketplace.
Excelsa is technically a member of the Liberica family, but its species is way more distinct. It is primarily grown in Southeast Asia and represents only a small fraction of the world’s coffee production. Excelsa beans have a tart, fruitier flavor and is known for showing attributes of both light and dark roast coffees.