Originating in Europe about 3,000 years ago, the woodturning lathes are among the oldest machines. For many hundreds of years leading up to the Industrial Revolution, the foot-powered woodturning lathe was the only woodworking machine in common use. It has moved on from being a simple hand powered machine to a powerful, fast, accurate, and automatic machine—often using computer control. Additionally, the cutting tools developed too. From the earliest (which may have been flint), through steel, high speed steel, and now tungsten carbide, enabling greater speed and efficiency. With this automation comes a need for safety specifications. ANSI O1.1-2013 (R2023): Woodworking Machinery – Safety Requirements establishes the safety requirements for woodworking machinery and accessory equipment.
What Is ANSI O1.1?
ANSI O1.1-2013 (R2023) covers the safety requirements for the design, installation, care, and use of woodworking machinery and accessory equipment, used in industrial and commercial applications, having a total connected power of 5 hp (3.7kw) or greater, or having 3-phase wiring. Examples of woodworking machines are band saw; jig saw; circular saw; cylindrical cutter machine; drilling/boring/mortising machine; lathe; sanders; gluing, laminating, and laminate indexing machines. The American National Standard details requirements tailored to these specific machines and special devices as well as requirements for personnel.
ANSI O1.1-2013 (R2023) should be applied to machines for which there is no machine-specific standard within the ANSI O1 series. If such a standard exists, it supersedes this standard.
What Is the Most Versatile Woodworking Machine?
The table saw is the most important stationary tool to have in any woodworking shop due to its extreme versatility. This woodworking tool excels at making straight cuts—ranging from rip cuts, crosscutting cuts, miter cuts, and much more. Additionally, with the addition of any of a million jigs (i.e., a custom-made cutting tool), it can be made to perform an amazing number of tasks with repeatability and precision. The table saw is also used for roughing out smaller parts from larger pieces, all the way through trimming parts to final size. The only limit to the table saw, however, is that the piece needs to be small enough to be pushed through it. Above a certain size, the table saw becomes less useful and even impossible to use as the saw needs to be brought to the piece, instead of the piece being brought to the saw.
Who Invented Wood Working?
Woodworking is depicted in many ancient Egyptian drawings from around 2000 BC that depict a considerable amount of ancient Egyptian furniture: stools, chairs, tables, beds, and chests. There is also physical evidence of these wooden objects since they were preserved in tombs due to the country’s dry climate. The inner coffins found in the tombs were also made of wood. Further, there is evidence that around 3000 BC Egyptians were joining wooden boards together into boat hulls.
Moreover, ancient Egyptian woodworkers developed techniques that advanced the craft for future generations. They invented the art of veneering—gluing thin slices of wood together. The earliest examples of veneering are over 5,000 years old and found in the tomb of Semerkhet. Many of the pharaohs were buried with objects that had African ebony veneer and ivory inlays, and according to some scholars the Egyptians were the first to varnish or “finish” their woodwork.
The metal used by the Egyptians for woodworking tools was originally copper. Common woodworking tools included axes, adzes, chisels, pull saws, and bow drills. During the earliest pre-dynastic period (circa 3100 B.C., about the time of the first pharaoh), they also used mortise and tenon joints to join pieces of wood. Pegs, dowels, and leather or cord lashings strengthened these joints. Animal glue was used during the New Kingdom period (1570 – 1069 B.C.).
ANSI O1.1-2013 (R2023): Woodworking Machinery – Safety Requirements is available on the ANSI Webstore.