ASME B30 is a gargantuan suite of American National Standards, with each document existing as a distinct volume. Just like various other wide-reaching concepts, ASME B30 has had plenty of time to expand from its initial form. In fact, the series of standards dates back to 1916, when an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) committee on the Protection of Industrial Workers presented an eight-page “Code of Safety Standards for Cranes” at the annual meeting of ASME.
Today, ASME B30 exists as 30 separate volumes, each addressing a different type of lifting machinery utilized in construction processes. We’ve listed these standards below. For those who design or operate all these devices or otherwise need to comply with all these standards, 29 can be acquired as the ASME B30 Construction Package.
ANSI offers several other standards packages to help assure compliance among practices shared across numerous lifting devices and their associated standards.
Lifting Equipment in the Ancient World
While ASME B30 began with a short code prepared over 100 years ago, it represents the best practices improved throughout millennia. In fact, many of the devices addressed in the series have existed in some form since antiquity, evolving throughout the years to enhance their efficiency and safety.
While industry has persisted since the early days of humankind (refer to our post on the first standard), the majority of Homo sapiens’ tenure on this Earth has been devoid of construction practices. For shelters and living spaces, the earliest hunter-gatherers turned to natural structures like. When they eventually did construct shelters, likely during the Upper Paleolithic (Paleolithic meaning the Old Stone Age), they built basic huts or tents with wooden supports.
Humankind didn’t see complex structures until after the advent of agriculture. The reasoning for this: the domestication of various plants and animals encouraged a more sedentary lifestyle to tend to these crops and animals. The increased population led to an abundance of specialized workers, advanced cities with centralized governments, writing and record keeping, organized religion, and arts and infrastructure. These are considered key elements of civilization.
Around 1500 BCE in Mesopotamia, the birthplace of both agriculture and civilization, the first pulleys emerged to hoist water. This invention led to the compound pulley, which was created by Archimedes. The compound pulley eventually inspired the invention of the crane, an accomplishment that we also owe to the Greeks.
Devices like the crane, as well as the sling—which has roots as an archaic missile launcher—were present throughout the construction of numerous structures emblematic of the ancient world. However, while safety was likely not a top concern during construction processes ordained by pharaohs and others powerful figures, these events long predate the ASME B30 standard.
Instead, let’s look at an example far more contemporary with the safety standard: the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge. This suspension bridge, then the longest in the world, was completed in 1883, centuries after advanced lifting machines like the hydraulic crane and aerial cableway had sprouted into existence. Unfortunately, this process, which spanned almost 15 years, took the lives of at least twenty people, with dozens more suffering debilitating injuries. In fact, the first fatality came even before construction had begun.
History of ASME B30
While the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge was a massive endeavor, its notable fatality rate demonstrates that safety was not necessarily on people’s minds at the time. Therefore, the initial eight-page “Code of Safety Standards for Cranes” was a necessity for improving safety efforts in the construction industry.
However, this document was just a jumping off point for ASME and the standards community. In fact, numerous groups convened throughout the 1920s to form a Sectional Committee and further advance progress in standardizing this sector. This committee developed the “Safety Code for Cranes, Derricks, and Hoists” as ASA B30.2-1943, while reserving “Jacks” for ASA B30.1-1943.
Please note that these early B30 standards were designated ASA B30.X-19XX because ANSI was, at the time, the American Standards Association (ASA). ASA, which was founded as the American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC), changed its name to the United States of America Standards Institute (USASI) in 1966 before becoming the American National Standards Institute in 1969. Because of this, past ASME B30 volumes may be designated “ASA B30,” “USAS B30,” or “ANSI B30.”
While the standard for jacks has retained its place as volume 1 of ASME B30 throughout the past century, part 2 was divided into multiple standards in the series. In the 1960s, B30.3, B30.5, B30.6, B30.11, and B30.16 were designated as “revisions” of B30.2. The remainder of the B30 volumes were published as entirely new standards. These 30 volumes were revised periodically throughout the remainder of the 20th Century, leading to the current editions that assure construction safety today. Since 1982, the B30 committee has been an “Accredited Organization Committee,” operating under procedures developed by ASME and accredited by ANSI.
Standards in the ASME B30 Series
All volumes of ASME B30 include:
ASME B30.1-2020: Jacks, Industrial Rollers, Air Casters, And Hydraulic Gantries
ASME B30.2-2022: Overhead And Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single Or Multiple Girder, Top Running Trolley Hoist)
ASME B30.4-2020: Portal And Pedestal Cranes
ASME B30.5-2021: Mobile And Locomotive Cranes
You can read more about this standard in our post on ASME B30.5-2021.
ASME B30.8-2020: Floating Cranes And Floating Derricks -Safety Standard For Cableways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks, And Slings
You can read more about this standard in our post on ASME B30.9-2018: Slings.
You can read more about this standard in our post on ASME B30.10-2019: Hooks.
ASME B30.11X-2010: Monorails And Underhung Cranes -Safety Standard For Cableways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks, And Slings
ASME B30.12-2011: Handling Loads Suspended From Rotorcraft
ASME B30.13-2022: Storage/Retrieval (S/R) Machines And Associated Equipment
ASME B30.14-2015: Side Boom Tractors
ASME B30.16-2022: Overhead Underhung And Stationary Hoists
ASME B30.17-2020: Cranes And Monorails (With Underhung Trolley Or Bridge)
ASME B30.18-2021: Stacker Cranes (Top Or Under Running Bridge, Multiple Girder With Top Or Under Running Trolley Hoist)
ASME B30.19-2016: Safety Standard For Cableways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks, And Slings
ASME B30.20-2018: Below-The-Hook Lifting Devices
You can read more about this standard in our post on the changes to ASME B30.20-21. Please note that another standard, ASME BTH-1-2020: Design Of Below-The-Hook Lifting Devices, expands upon concepts associated with below-the-hook lifting devices, and it specifically includes provisions for their structural design criteria. You can read more about this standard in our post on ASME BTH-1-2020.
ASME B30.21-2014 (R2019): Lever Hoists
ASME B30.22-2016: Articulating Boom Cranes
ASME B30.23-2022: Personnel Lifting Systems
You can read more about this standard in our post on ASME B30.23-2022.
ASME B30.24-2018: Container Cranes
ASME B30.25-2018: Scrap And Material Handlers
You can read more about this standard in our post on ASME B30.25-2018.
ASME B30.26-2015 (R2020): Rigging Hardware
ASME B30.27-2019: Material Placement Systems
ASME B30.28-2015 (R2020): Balance Lifting Units
ASME B30.29-2018: Self-Erecting Tower Cranes
Furthermore, there are two new standards in development:
ASME B30.31 Self-Propelled, Towed, or Remote-Controlled
Hydraulic Platform Transporters
ASME B30.32 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Used in
Inspection, Testing, Maintenance, and Lifting
Standards Packages for ASME B30
As mentioned above, all these standards are available as part of the ASME B30 Construction Package. However, for users who don’t need every single volume of the B30 standard but are in need of assuring safety with multiple types of lifting machines, ANSI offers an assortment of standards packages that bundle several ASME B30 standards by topic.
Other ASME B30 standards packages include:
ASME B30.5 / ASME B30.22 / ASME B30.26 – Cranes Package
ASME B30.2 / ASME B30.11 / ANSI/ASME B30.17 – Cranes Package
ASME B30.16 / ASME B30.11 / ANSI/ASME B30.17 – Hoists Package
ASME B30.5 / ASME B30.20 / ASME B30.9 – Mobile and Locomotive Cranes Package
ASME B30.20 / ASME B30.26 / ASME B30.10 – Below the Hook and Rigging Hardware Package
ASME B30.9 / ASME B30.10 – Slings and Hooks Package
ASME B30.20 / ASME BTH-1 – Below the Hook lifting Devices Package
ASME B30.2 / ASME B30.16 – Overhead Hoists and Gantry Cranes Package
ASME B30.2 / ASME B30.10 / ASME B30.11 / ASME B30. 16 – Hooks Hoist and Cranes Package
ASME B30.2 / ASME B30.9 /ASME B30.10 / ASME B30.20 – Gantry Cranes and Slings Package
ASME B30.9 / ASME B30.16 / ASME B30.20 / ASME B30.26 – Slings Hoists and Hooks Package
I was a member of the B30 committee for over 25 years and loved every minute of it.