Titanium practically sits on a pedestal when compared to other metals, an honor that it derives from having the highest tensile strength-to-density ratio of any metallic element. With this exaltation, it should come as no surprise that the very name of the element originates with the Titans, the second generation of divine beings in Greek mythology. While not actually as hard as some varieties of heat-treated steel, titanium’s high strength and low density grant it omnipresent usage in aerospace products.
However, it may be irresponsible simply to assume that any product composed of titanium or titanium alloys is acceptable without some measure of verification. SAE AMS 2249J-2019 – Chemical Check Analysis Limits Titanium and Titanium Alloys defines limits of variation for identifying acceptability of the composition of cast or wrought titanium and titanium alloy parts and material that have been acquired from a producer for aerospace use.
The SAE AMS 2249J-2019 standard is applicable—when specifically referenced throughout the material specification—to a purchaser who wishes to apply check analysis limits for determining acceptability of titanium products, as part of final acceptance or verification testing operations. These limits, as well as acceptable variation under the minimum or over the maximum, for elements found in titanium alloys, such as tin, aluminum, and copper, are listed in Table 1 of the specification.
Furthermore, several ASTM International publications are intended to be used as referee methods of analysis for reviewing certain elements, such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon, in titanium alloy products, as well as for utilizing certain methods, such as X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. These standards include:
ASTM E539-19 – Standard Test Method for Analysis of Titanium Alloys by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
ASTM E1409-13(2021) – Standard Test Method for Determination of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Titanium and Titanium Alloys by Inert Gas Fusion
ASTM E1447-22 – Standard Test Method for Determination of Hydrogen in Reactive Metals and Reactive Metal Alloys by Inert Gas Fusion With Detection By Thermal Conductivity Or Infrared Spectrometry
ASTM E1941-10(2016) – Standard Test Method for Determination of Carbon in Refractory and Reactive Metals and Their Alloys by Combustion Analysis
ASTM E2371-21 – Standard Test Method for Analysis of Titanium and Titanium Alloys by Direct Current Plasma and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (Performance-Based Test Methodology)
ASTM E2994-16 – Standard Test Method for Analysis of Titanium and Titanium Alloys by Spark Atomic Emission Spectrometry and Glow Discharge Atomic Emission Spectrometry (Performance-Based Method)
Determining the acceptability of materials and products, at both the manufacturer and user sides, is an objective undertaken in a variety of publications by standard developing organizations. You can find more titanium standards by searching the ANSI Webstore.